Anchoring or focalism is a cognitive bias that describes the common human tendency to rely too heavily on the first piece of information offered (the "anchor") when making decisions.Kahneman and Amos Tverskey Kahneman goes over numerous examples of this bias; one involved asking study participants if Gandhi was 144 years old when he died. While this question is obviously absurd, as 144 years is longer than anyone can live, it sets an "anchor" from which the participants "adjust" from. Participants adjust down from 144 to reach their answer.
In another example, real estate agents were given sufficient information to assess the value of a house. Within this information was the list price. Some agents were provided information with a very high list price while others were given a very low list price. The ones given the high list price produced a significantly higher value of the home than did those who were given the low list price.